- "He wasn't in time for his classes... He was never in time for dinner... Then one day... He wasn't in his time at all."
- " 17 year old Marty McFly got home early last night. 30 years early."
|Back to the Future|
|Directed by||Robert Zemeckis|
|Produced by|| Steven Spielberg|
Johnny Colla (uncredited)
|Written by|| Robert Zemeckis|
|Starring|| Michael J. Fox|
Thomas F. Wilson
|Music by||Alan Silvestri|
|Distributed by||Universal Pictures|
|Release date(s)||July 3, 1985 (USA)|
|Running time||116 minutes|
|Followed by||Back to the Future Part II|
Back to the Future is an American science fiction/comedy film directed by Robert Zemeckis and released in 1985. It is about a young man named Marty McFly who accidentally travels into the past and jeopardizes his own future existence. The film was followed by two sequels, Back to the Future Part II (1989), and Back to the Future Part III (1990), forming a trilogy.
Back To The Future was written by Bob Gale and Zemeckis, and starred Michael J. Fox and Christopher Lloyd. The movie opened on July 3, 1985 and grossed $210 million at the US box office, making it the highest grossing film of 1985. On December 17, 2002, Universal Studios Home Entertainment released Back to the Future: The Complete Trilogy on DVD and VHS.
Following the completion of the film series, three more spin-off projects surfaced. CBS TV aired an animated series, Back to the Future: The Animated Series and Harvey Comics released a handful of similarly styled comic books, although their stories were original and not merely duplicates of the films. In 1991, Universal Studios Theme Parks opened a simulator ride based on the series called Back to the Future: The Ride, which closed down in 2007.
On October 25, 1985, Marty McFly, a 17-year old high school senior, visits the home of his friend, an eccentric local scientist named Dr. Emmett L. Brown, but finds that "Doc" is not there. Moments before Marty had walked in, a report came across the television about missing and stolen plutonium. As Marty walks into Doc's house, he kicks his skateboard and it runs into a box of plutonium that is under Doc's bed. Marty, however, does not notice the box and proceeds to hook his guitar up to the giant amplifier that Doc has constructed. Marty turns the amplifier settings to their highest points and strums his guitar. The amp blows up and sends Marty flying into the shelves behind him. Marty soon after receives a call from Doc asking him to meet him at 1:15 AM in the parking lot at Twin Pines Mall and was told not to use the amplifier, even though he already used it. As Marty agrees, the clocks in Doc's basement chime the hour. When Doc Brown remarks that the clocks are 25 minutes behind, proof that an experiment was successful, Marty realizes that he is late for school.
When Marty gets to school, he is found by his girlfriend Jennifer Parker. She informs Marty that Mr. Strickland is looking for him. Mr. Strickland finds the kids and gives Jennifer a tardy slip while reprimanding Marty. After school, Marty and his band, "The Pinheads," audition to play at the school dance, but the band is rejected for being "too darn loud." Afterwards, Marty confides in Jennifer, about worrying that he will never get a chance to play for an audience. As they sit on a bench in the Courthouse Square of Hill Valley, they are interrupted by a woman insisting that Marty and Jennifer help "save the clock tower." The lady proceeds to hand Marty a flyer about a campaign to save the clock tower, which was struck by lightning at 10:04 PM on Saturday, November 12, 1955. Jennifer soon has to leave and writes her phone number on the back of the flyer, as she is going to be at her grandma's house. Marty folds the flyer and puts it in his pocket.
When Marty gets home, he finds that the family car has been totaled by his father George's supervisor, Biff Tannen, who has been drinking and driving (at the same time!), and then complains that George had not told him the car had a "blind spot". Biff demands to know who is going to pay his dry-cleaning bill, as he spilled beer down his suit in the crash, then bullies George into writing his reports for work while making a rude comment by calling Marty "butthead." The family has dinner, during which it is discovered that Marty's older brother Dave works at a Burger King, his sister Linda has no love life, and his alcoholic mother Lorraine disapproves of girls chasing boys. She remarks that fate brought her and George together from her father hitting George with a car. Lorraine then mentions their first kiss at the "Enchantment Under the Sea" dance.
Marty falls asleep after dinner and is woken up by Doc calling him to bring Doc's video camera to the Twin Pines Mall. Marty meets Doc at the mall to witness and film a demonstration of Doc's latest invention: a time machine made from a modified DeLorean sports car, which must reach 88 miles-per-hour in order to travel through time. Doc tests the car by sending his dog Einstein one minute into the future. Overjoyed by this success, Doc demonstrates to Marty how the time machine works by entering several significant dates into the keypad and telling him that the time machine needs 1.21 gigawatts of electrical power. Doc enters the date November 5, 1955 and explains to Marty that this was the day that he came up with the idea for the flux capacitor, the device that makes time travel possible.
After Doc refills the plutonium chamber of the time machine, a group of Libyan terrorists arrive, from whom he took the plutonium in exchange for a fake bomb. The Libyans shoot Doc, but Marty is able to escape in the DeLorean, accelerating to 88 miles per hour and thus inadvertently sending himself thirty years in the past to November 5, 1955.
Marty, immediately, arrives at the Twin Pines Ranch, which was owned by Otis Peabody. Marty crashes into the barn on Mr. Peabody's property which causes the entire Peabody family to wake up and come outside. On seeing Marty in his radiation suit, it is concluded that he is an alien. Mr. Peabody then gets his shotgun to kill Marty, but Marty is able to escape.
Marty encounters many differences between 1985 and 1955, including a cleaner, less run-down ambiance in the Courthouse Square. While searching for a younger Doc Brown, he meets his father and accidentally interferes with the first meeting of his parents--being hit by his grandfather's Chevrolet in his father's place. (George had been in a tree watching Lorraine undress). Lorraine falls in love with Marty instead, calling him "Calvin Klein" because she sees the name on his underwear. He has dinner with Lorraine's family, claims that he has seen the episode of The Honeymooners ("The Man from Space") on TV even though it is brand new, and meets his Uncle Joey, a future "jailbird" who loves being in his playpen. Disturbed by his "mother's" flirtations, Marty is shocked because she is entirely different from the prudish woman he remembers.
Marty quickly leaves after feeling uncomfortable and finds Doc, who disbelieves his story until Marty mentions the flux capacitor and how Doc came up with the idea. He then shows Doc the DeLorean. Amazed that one of his inventions will work, Doc realizes that he's got to get Marty home. After watching Marty's film of the time machine experiment, Doc is shocked to hear his future self explain that the DeLorean needs 1.21 gigawatts, and he runs off screaming "1.21 gigawatts?!" and Marty asks loudly "What the hell is a gigawatt?!" Doc realizes that he has no access to anything that would produce "1.21 gigawatts" of electrical power on demand and concludes that only harnessing the electrical power of a lightning bolt would give the flux capacitor that power it needs. Marty then shows him the flyer from 1985 that gives the exact time and place of a lightning bolt, one week away. Doc sets out to build a device that will let them channel the lightning bolt into the flux capacitor ultimately sending Marty back to 1985.
This excites Marty, suggesting that Doc shows him around town while he waits. Doc stops him in mid-sentence, stating that he cannot leave his house. Anything he does risks altering future events. Doc then asks Marty if he had talked to anyone else today beside him. Marty admits that he ran into his parents. Shocked at this revelation, Doc tells Marty that his encounter with his parents jeopardizes Marty's own existence. A photograph Marty carries of himself, Dave, and Linda documents this peril: part of Dave, the eldest, appears to have been "erased" from the photo, soon to be followed by Linda, and finally, unless disaster is averted, Marty. And Marty sets out to put right, what he inadvertently made wrong between his parents.
Marty begins with trying to persuade George to ask Lorraine to the dance, but George is too nervous. They also have trouble with a younger Biff Tannen (the school bully), who is after Lorraine and forces George to do homework which he copies on the weekends. After a couple unsuccessful attempts at getting George and Lorraine together, Marty dresses up in his radioactive suit and rudely awakes George while sleeping. Marty claims to be "Darth Vader" from the planet "Vulcan." The next morning, George finds Marty because he is now convinced that he must woo Lorraine. In Lou's Cafe, George attempts to woo Lorraine, but Biff comes in and harasses George. In an attempt to take up for his father, Marty trips Biff which leads to an exciting chase. Marty runs out of the cafe and creates a makeshift skateboard from a young boy's scooter. Marty is then able to outsmart and outmaneuver Biff and his gang, whom are in a car. Biff subsequently runs into a manure truck. The whole incident makes Lorraine even more attracted to Marty, and she asks Marty to the dance.
Marty accepts the invitation, but forms a plan for George to get Lorraine. Marty tells George that his plan is to 'take advantage' of Lorraine in the car, so that George can come rescue her. On the night of the dance, however, Lorraine is more than willing to let Marty take advantage of her, having swiped some liquor for the event (when Lorraine and Marty kiss, however, she is suddenly uncomfortable and says that it was like "kissing my brother"). Biff interrupts and gets in the car with Lorraine, while Biff's gang locks Marty in the trunk of singer-guitarist Marvin Berry's car. When George arrives, expecting Marty, he finds Biff harassing Lorraine instead. When Biff pushes Lorraine to the ground and laughs at her, George becomes infuriated, and knocks Biff out with a single punch to the chin. George and Lorraine head off to the dance just in time for Marty to see them together, having just been freed from Berry's car.
Nevertheless, the photograph is still fading and things have become worse. Berry sliced his hand open while trying to free Marty from the trunk, meaning that the live music is seemingly over, robbing George and Lorraine of the opportunity to kiss on the dance floor. Marty volunteers to play the guitar instead however suddenly finding himself the only one left on the photograph, in which, Lorraine & George dancing was the only thing keeping him in existence. During the first number, "Earth Angel", Mark Dixon, a student, cuts in between George and Lorraine. Despite Lorraine asking George to help, he initially walks away from the confrontation. Marty suddenly collapses on stage and sees that his image is now fading from the photograph & reality (he proves this as he raises his right hand to see that he is literally fading from existence as his hand starts to become translucent). Thankfully George gets back his new-found confidence, pushes Dixon to the floor and proceeds to kiss Lorraine. At the moment of the kiss, Marty begins playing the guitar again with a renewed vigor. Looking at the photograph, Marty is fully restored before Dave and Linda also reappear, allowing Marty to know that his future is assured. At the band's request, Marty plays one more song, "Johnny B. Goode." Marvin Berry calls his cousin, Chuck Berry, and tells that he found the "new sound" Chuck was looking for. Marty does Chuck Berry's trademark duck walk, and then gets carried away imitating other guitar heroes: windmilling his arm and kicking over his amplifier in imitation of Pete Townshend, lying on the stage kicking his legs in imitation of Angus Young, playing behind his head like Jimi Hendrix, and tapping in the style of Eddie Van Halen. In the face of uncomprehending stares from the audience, Marty says, "I guess you guys aren't ready for that yet. But your kids are gonna love it."
Marty has a last chat with his parents and leaves to rejoin Doc Brown, who has suspended a cable from the top of the clock tower to channel the lightning into the DeLorean. Just as Marty is getting ready to take the DeLorean to the starting line Doc drew, Doc discovers a letter that Marty had written earlier describing Doc's death. Doc, not wanting to alter the future, tears it up unread and intends to throw it away. Before he can however, a tree limb falls onto the cable, disconnecting it. Doc puts the torn pieces of the letter in his coat pocket and runs to fix the cable. Marty continually tries to tell Doc about the future, but runs out of time and has to return to the DeLorean. Getting in the car, Marty bemoans that he needed more time... then realises that, as he's in a time machine, he has all the time he wants as long as he hit the cable at the lightning strike and sets the time circuits to take him back earlier than he left, so he can save Doc. Meanwhile, Doc fixes one wire only to disconnect another. He slides down the wire and reconnects it, just as the lightning hits the tower. Marty accelerates to 88 miles per hour and contacts the cable just as the lightning speeds through the electrified wire, sending the DeLorean back to the future, Doc runs along the fire trails, shouts in laughter at his successful experiment & the last of 1955 seen is Doc looking at the clock tower.
Back to 1985Edit
Marty returns to 1985 eleven minutes before he left, but the car stalls again. While frantically trying to start the car, the Libyans drive past and Marty has no choice but to run to the mall (now called Lone Pine Mall due to Marty driving through one of the pine trees in 1955). Marty arrives too late, and sees Doc being shot and himself driving the DeLorean back in time while the terrorists crash into a photo booth. Marty rushes down to Doc's body and turns away in tears. Doc suddenly sits up, opening his radiation suit to reveal a bulletproof vest. He then pulls out the letter Marty wrote him, yellowed and taped back together from the shreds he tore it into 30 years before. Marty asks Doc why he kept the letter if he was worried about screwing up the future. Doc simply tells Marty, "Well, I figured, what the hell."
Doc drives Marty home, and then departs for the year 2015. In the morning, Marty discovers his house is different; there is a new BMW in the driveway (in place of the wrecked Chevrolet Nova), Linda has an active social life and Dave has an office job. Lorraine and George arrive home from playing tennis, both more fit and attractive, and much more affectionate to one another, than when Marty left. Lorraine now approves of Marty seeing Jennifer and George also shows more self confidence, even catching Biff in a fib. Biff, who is now timid and instead of being George's supervisor now has an auto-detailing service, runs in with the delivery of George's first novel, a science fiction story called A Match Made In Space. Marty then finds that the Toyota pick-up truck that he previously coveted is now his as a gift from his parents. As Marty and Jennifer are about to take a ride in the truck, Doc reappears in the DeLorean, telling Marty to come with him to the future, that something has got to be done about their kids. He hurries Marty and Jennifer into the car. As Doc pulls out of the driveway, Marty points out that there is not enough road to accelerate to 88 mph, with Doc replying, "Roads? Where we're going, we don't need roads," and flies off in the now fusion-powered and hover-converted DeLorean.
Titles in other languagesEdit
- De volta para o futuro (Brazil)
- Regresso ao Futuro (Portugal)
- Paluu tulevaisuuteen (Finland)
- Retour vers le futur (France)
- Ritorno al Futuro (Italy)
- Zurück in die Zukunft (Germany, Austria, Switzerland)
- Volver al Futuro (Hispanic America)
- Návrat do Budoucnosti (Czech Republic)
- Návrat do Budúcnosti (Slovakia)
- Tagasi Tulevikku (Estonia)
- Tilbage til Fremtiden (Danish)
- Tilbake til Fremtiden (Norwegian)
- Tillbaka till Framtiden (Swedish)
- Aftur til Framtíðar (Icelandic)
- Powrót do przyszłości (Poland)
- Назад в будущее (Russian)
- Vissza a jövőbe (Hungarian)
- Bakku to~u- za- fu~yucha (Japanese)
Recurring gags and catchphrase countsEdit
- See Recurring gags
The inspiration for the film largely stems from Bob Gale, who discovered his father's high school yearbook and wondered whether he would have been friends with his father as a teenager.
Robert Zemeckis pitched the idea to several companies. Disney turned it down because they thought that a story involving a mother falling in love with her son was too risqué, even if it was a twist of time travel. All other companies said it was not risqué enough, compared to the other teen comedies at the time (see Porky's, Fast Times at Ridgemont High (1982) and Revenge of the Nerds (1984)).
Sid Sheinberg, the head of Universal Pictures, made many small changes to the movie. "Professor Brown" was changed to "Doctor Brown" and his chimp Shemp to a dog named Einstein. Marty's mother had previously been Meg, then Eileen, but Sid Sheinberg insisted that she be named Lorraine after his wife Lorraine Gary. According to one of the DVD commentaries, Sheinberg also did not like the title, insisting that no one would see a movie with "future" in the title. In a memo to Robert Zemeckis, he said that the title should be changed to "Spaceman From Pluto", tying in with the Marty-as-alien jokes in the film. Steven Spielberg replied in a memo thanking him for the wonderful "joke memo" and told him everyone got a kick out of it. Sid Sheinberg, too proud to admit he was serious, let the title stand.
In the original script, Marty's rock-and-roll caused a riot at the dance that had to be broken up by police. This, combined with Marty accidentally tipping Doc off to the "secret ingredient" that made the time machine work (Coca-Cola) caused history to change. When Marty got back to the 1980s, he found that it was now the 1950s conception of that decade, with air-cars and whatnot, all invented by Doc Brown and running on Coca-Cola. Marty also discovers that rock and roll was never invented (the most popular musical style is now the mambo), and he dedicates himself to starting the delayed cultural revolution. Meanwhile, his dad digs out the newspaper from the day after the dance and sees his son in the picture of the riot.
In the film's script the word "gigawatt" is spelled and pronounced "jigowatt." Bob Gale and Robert Zemeckis had been to a science seminar and the speaker had pronounced it "jigowatt."
Casting and filmingEdit
As Back to the Future's producers scouted locations on a residential street in Pasadena, California, Michael J. Fox was elsewhere on that street, filming his second (Midnight Madness was his first) starring feature role, Teen Wolf. The producers became interested in having Fox play Marty McFly. However, Fox initially had to turn down the part because another actor in Family Ties, Meredith Baxter-Birney, was pregnant at the time, and so Fox's character (Alex Keaton) had to "carry the show."
Production of the film began on November 26, 1984 with actor Eric Stoltz portraying Marty McFly, and reportedly shot for more than four weeks, until the return of executive producer Steven Spielberg, who was out of the country at the time. After seeing a rough cut, Spielberg and the writer/directors agreed that Stoltz was a fine actor, but unfortunately not right for the part. Stoltz had played it seriously, and they wanted a lighter touch on the character. They returned to the idea of Michael J. Fox, who this time worked out a shooting schedule that would not interfere with his television commitment. Fox spent his days rehearsing and shooting Family Ties, and then drove to the movie's set to film Back to The Future all night. The movie's day shots were filmed on weekends. Fox reportedly averaged only an hour or two of sleep each night during production, which was completed on April 20, 1985, less than three months before the film's release.
Much of the original footage was retained for the film, for shots in which Eric Stoltz were not visible. Bob Gale later explained in a commentary track on a DVD release that some dialogue scenes with other actors were from the original shoot. A few long shots with Stoltz as Marty McFly still exist in the film, according to Zemeckis and Gale, and there was at least one "teaser" movie poster released with Eric Stoltz' name and face visible. One notable scene that was kept in the final film is the one in which Stoltz as Marty drives the DeLorean in the mall parking lot. Since the shots were fairly distant, with the driver's face not particularly visible, the footage was retained.
Taglines considered but not used for Back to the Future were:
- The adventures of Marty McFly.
- Marty McFly just broke the time barrier. He's only got one week to get it fixed.
- Meet Marty McFly. He's broken the time barrier. Busted his parents' first date. And, maybe, botched his chances of ever being born.
- 17-year-old Marty McFly got home early last night. 30 years early.
- Marty McFly's having the time of his life. The only question is... what time is it?
Michael J. Fox had to learn to skateboard for the film. To find a coordinator for the skateboarding scenes, Bob Gale went to Venice Beach and approached two skateboarders. One turned out to be European skate champ Per Welinder. The skater he was with became the stunt double for Eric Stoltz, but was later replaced in order to match Michael J. Fox's height.
Several key scenes were filmed on the Universal Studios backlot in what is now known as Courthouse Square. The setting of hundreds of other productions, including the current television show Ghost Whisperer, it has suffered major fire damage on two occasions since Back to the Future was made.
The DeLorean time machineEdit
The time machine went through several variations during production. In the first draft of the screenplay the time machine was a laser device that was housed in a room. At the end of the first draft the device was attached to a refrigerator and taken to an atomic bomb test site. Director Robert Zemeckis said in an interview that the idea was scrapped because he did not want children to start climbing into refrigerators and getting trapped inside. In the third draft of the film the time machine was a DeLorean DMC-12, as Zemeckis reasoned that if you were going to make a time machine, you would want it to move. However, in order to send Marty back to the future, the vehicle had to drive into a nuclear test site. Ultimately this concept was considered too expensive to film, so the power source was changed to lightning.
The DeLorean used in the trilogy was a 1982 DMC-12 model, modified to accommodate a more powerful and reliable Porsche engine (a Porsche engine was never put in any of the DMC time machines). The base for the nuclear-reactor was made from the hubcap from a Dodge Polara. In the 2002 Special-Edition DVD of the BTTF Trilogy, it is incorrectly stated that the DeLorean had a standard 4-cylinder engine. The only engine available on this car was a 130 HP V6. Also, the production ultimately used three real DeLoreans: one for external drive/race scenes, one with a modified interior for entering/exiting the DeLorean, and one stripped down model for interior scenes only.
The DeLorean time machine is a licensed, registered vehicle in the state of California. While the vanity license plate used in the film says "OUTATIME" (and originally NOTIME), the DeLorean's actual license plate reads 3CZV657.
The film's musical score was by Alan Silvestri, who later wrote music for Forrest Gump and numerous other films, many of them directed by Robert Zemeckis. The memorable themes in his Back to the Future Suite have since been heard in the film's sequels (also scored by Silvestri), in Back to the Future: The Ride, and as ambient music at the Universal Studios theme parks. The hip, upbeat soundtrack, featuring two new songs by Huey Lewis and the News, also contributed to the film's popularity. "The Power of Love" became the band's first song to hit number one on the Billboard Hot 100 and was nominated for an Academy Award. Huey Lewis himself played the high-school band audition judge that rejects Michael J. Fox's band, The Pinheads, as they perform "The Power of Love." The film's soundtrack, which was available on CD, also included songs by Eric Clapton, Lindsay Buckingham, Etta James and others. Two 1950s hits Marty encounters when he arrives in 1955, Mr. Sandman by the Four Aces and the Fess Parker recording of The Ballad of Davy Crockett, were not included on the CD release. The material ostensibly by Marty McFly, Marvin Berry and the Starlighters was recorded by Harry Waters, Jr. as Marvin Berry and Mark Campbell as Marty McFly, and the guitar solo by Tim May. (Campbell and May received a Special Thanks acknowledgment in the film's end credits, with the recording credit going to the fictional characters). Berry's group also plays the song "Night Train", first recorded by Jimmy Forrest in 1951.
Reviews were generally positive. Roger Ebert complimented the direction, writing that Zemeckis "shows not only a fine comic touch but also some of the lighthearted humanism of a Frank Capra. The movie, in fact, resembles Capra's It's a Wonderful Life more than other, conventional time-travel movies. It's about a character who begins with one view of his life and reality, and is allowed, through magical intervention, to discover another." Even the sequences where Marty's mum has the "hots for him" is regarded as "up-beat... without ever becoming uncomfortable." The BBC applauded the intricacies of the "outstandingly executed" script, remarking that "nobody says anything that doesn't become important to the plot later."
This movie ranked number 28 on Entertainment Weekly's list of the 50 Best High School Movies. As of December 2006, Back to the Future had received a very respectable 94% on Rotten Tomatoes, with 98% rating from the users. In 2006, Back to the Future was voted the 20th greatest film ever made by readers of Empire.
The series was very popular in the 1980s, even making fans out of celebrities like ZZ Top (who appeared in the third film) and President Ronald Reagan, who referred to the movie in his 1986 State of the Union address when he said, "Never has there been a more exciting time to be alive, a time of rousing wonder and heroic achievement. As they said in the film Back to the Future, 'Where we're going, we don't need roads.'" He also considered accepting a role in the third film as the 1885 mayor of Hill Valley but eventually declined.
In early 2007, the film was spoofed in a DirectTV commercial, with Doc stating: "Great Scott! I forgot to tell Marty when he gets back to the future he needs to get DirectTV HD. It will already have all the best channels and soon will have 3-times more HD capacity than cable. Impossible?!? That's what they said about my Flux Capacitor!"
Sequels were not initially planned. Zemeckis later stated that had sequels been envisioned, the first film would not have ended with Jennifer traveling in the DeLorean with Marty and Doc, which created logistical problems in plotting the other films. In addition, the "To Be Continued..." caption was not added until the film was released to video by which time plans for a sequel (eventually two sequels) had been announced (the filmmakers chose to omit the caption from the 2002 DVD release).
Ultimately, the sequels did not fare as well at the box office. While the first installment grossed $210 million (making it the biggest-earning movie of 1985), Parts II (fall of 1989) and III (summer of 1990) made roughly $118 million and $88 million, respectively (still making them hits, but not major hits).
Home video release historyEdit
- November 30, 1986 (VHS & Laserdisc)
- January 25, 1987 (VHS & Laserdisc)
- May 18, 1987 (VHS & Laserdisc)
- December 15, 1990 (VHS)
- May 27, 1995 (VHS & Compact Disc)
- March 9, 1999 (VHS, Compact Disc & Laserdisc)
- July 1, 1999 (DVD with Lucasfilm THX)
- May 7, 2000 (VHS & DVD)
- December 22, 2002 (VHS & DVD)
- June 5, 2003 (VHS & DVD)
- February, 2009 (DVD)
- October 26, 2010 (Blu-ray & DVD)
- February 15, 2011 (Zune/Xbox Live, PlayStation Network, and other digital gateways)
Behind the ScenesEdit
- According to some websites, such as imdb.com, Leonard Nimoy was going to direct Back to the Future but was unable to because he was starting work on the story for Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home. In November 2010, Bob Gale spoke to BTTF.com as part of a Myth Debunking story and debunked this rumor and said that "No one but Bob Zemeckis would have ever been allowed to direct Back to the Future because we both had complete control of the script."
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See also Edit
- ↑ "Top grossing movies for 1985 in the USA." The Internet Movie Database (IMDb). 9 December 2006.
- ↑ Haflidason, Almar. Back to the Future DVD (1985). Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 Robert Zemeckis and Bob Gale, Q&A, Back to the Future [DVD], recorded at the University of Southern California
- ↑ Back to the Future: FIRST DRAFT (24 February 1981). Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
- ↑ Frequently Asked Questions. bttf.com. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
- ↑ Back to the Future: The Official Book of the Complete Movie Trilogy
- ↑ Universal Studios Hollywood History File: November 6 1990. thestudiotour.com. www.theatrecrafts.com/. Retrieved on 2006-12-01.
- ↑ Dahl, Bill. Song Review: Night Train - Jimmy Forrest. AllMusicGuide. All Media Guide, LLC.. Retrieved on 2006-12-17.
- ↑ Ebert, Roger (July 3, 1985). Back to the Future. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
- ↑ Panton, Gary (1st May 2003). Back To The Future (1985). Movie Gazette. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 Back to the Future (1985). bbc.co.uk. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
- ↑ The 50 Best High School Movies. Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
- ↑ "Back to the Future." Rotten Tomatoes. 9 December 2006.
- ↑ "201 Greatest Movie of all Time", Empire, March 2006 (Issue 201), pp. 97.
- ↑ PRESIDENT RONALD REAGAN'S ADDRESS BEFORE A JOINT SESSION OF CONGRESS ON THE STATE OF THE UNION (February 4, 1986). Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
- Official Universal Pictures site
- BTTF Frequently Asked Questions written by Bob Gale and Robert Zemeckis
- Back to the Future at the Internet Movie Database
- Back to the Future at Yahoo! Movies
- Movie Locations Guide.com - Maps and Directions to Back to the Future Filming Locations
- - Back To The Future - French website A big website !
- Temporal Anomalies in Time Travel Movies - Back To The Future
- La web Oficial en Castellano - Back To The Future
- Back to the Future... The Freeweb Site A freeweb dedicated to the BTTF trilogy, filled with character biographies, Back to the Future sprite comics, facts and secrets, polls, and all other things related to Back to the Future. (Not to be confused with BTTF.com!)
- Back to the Future - Fan History Wiki: History of the fandom
- Back to the Future at VidTaggr - Regularly updated trivia and information viewed in real-time with the movie.
- Russian fan site BTTF
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